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Digital Games for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Underpinning Theory With Three Illustrative Examples

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Online games underpin

Postby Samusar В» 16.09.2019

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The development and use of game based approaches GBAs across a range of global teaching and coaching settings has expanded significantly over the last two decades. And with each GBA underpinned by similar theories of learning, distinctions between each approach can often be blurred. Arguably, this can lead to teachers' and coaches' blended conceptualisations of different pedagogical approaches.

Thus, although similar there is a need for teachers and coaches to recognise that not all GBAs are the same with each model or approach chosen impacting significantly upon learner experiences. Additional research by Wade and Mauldon and Redfern in England helped to stimulate the emergence of a change in thinking as to how sport and games could or should be taught.

In essence, a shift away from the predominance of repetitive practice, technique focused learning scenarios in sport was being suggested to be replaced by a greater emphasis on the learner and their place in the learning environment - now commonly referred to as a game based approach GBA. Arguably though, this has led to teachers' and coaches' blended conceptualisations of different GBAs.

Thus, although similar the authors of this paper believe there is a need for teachers and coaches to recognise that not all GBAs are the same with each model or approach chosen impacting significantly upon learner experiences. Through analysis of literature and presentation of teaching and coaching session outlines, this paper presents similarities and differences of two GBAs - TGfU and Game Sense - and discusses the need for teachers and coaches to recognise and respond to the contextual differences of each when considering their use.

It is not the purpose of this paper to compare TGfU and Game Sense with TDLM but instead to provide an overview of these two game based teaching approaches to inform readers so that they can then compare and contrast these approaches and their intended use to their understanding and use of TDLM. The difference in emphasis here is significant. This presents opportunities for problem solving which helps develop decision making skills in relation to each game play scenario.

The four pedagogical principles used to help accomplish this are 1 the sampling of different games from similar game categories within which all games share similar tactical problems e. Trusting the game to be the focus of learning and spending time observing the learning environment to determine how and when to structure and ask questions are teaching strategies arguably less emphasized when more traditional skills-based, teacher-centred approaches are used in games teaching.

One of these is Game Sense. According to Light learning through a Game Sense approach is situated within modified games that involve competition and decision making with an emphasis on questioning to stimulate thinking and intellectual engagement and to make it learner centred. Game Sense is by design less structured than TGfU with the absence of a prescriptive model initially intended to encourage existing good coaching practice and avoid any association with pedagogical practices used in school based physical education Light, Arguably, this can lead to teachers' and coaches' blended conceptualisations of uniquely different pedagogical approaches.

Although similar in their intention i. Recognition of these similarities is important for teachers and coaches and their ongoing development of pedagogical content knowledge. Since the constructivist perspective has been the dominant theory associated with learning through use of TGfU and Game Sense Light, Light expands on this further by describing constructivism as:.

A holistic conception of learning that extends beyond the individual mind as a separate entity to include the body and all its senses and others. From a constructivists perspective, cognition does not occur only in the mind, but involves the whole person… knowledge is not merely that which can be expressed in speech and writing but also that which is enacted [and that] learning is a process of adapting to, and fitting into, a constantly changing world.

In essence CLT has been used to simplify the confusion associated with the diverse range of constructivist approaches linked to TGfU and Game Sense use e. With respect to TGfU and Game Sense, use of CLT helps to encourage a broader conceptualisation of the learning that occurs in and through use of the approach and recognises the complex nature of learning Light, Thus, use of the term CLT has the potential to help teachers and coaches better understand the connection between what they should do i.

The achievement of such learning outcomes requires alignment with and use of appropriate pedagogical skills e. Thus, for assessment practice to be authentic it should align with both set learning outcomes and pedagogical practice. Similar authentic assessments have been used to assess learning and development across both TGfU and Game Sense practices. Moreover, the relational character of learning within games and its associated content i. Indeed, arguably one of the most compelling reasons for the use of TGfU or Game Sense is the potential to improve social and affective outcomes that are not only common in games and sports engagement but are associated with communication, interaction and teamwork Harvey, Rovegno et al.

These authors further noted that structuring the learning environment i. Light states that use of TGfU and Game Sense can also support aspects of learning that are often unintended and less tangible i.

Interestingly though, it is the reporting of both TGfU and Game Sense being used in a range of different learning settings over a year period e. Also contributing to a blended conceptualisation of approaches is the limited articulation of verification benchmarks used by a large proportion of TGfU and Game Sense studies. Indeed, in the absence of benchmark statements specifically designed to focus on the fidelity of Game Sense, the use of TGfU-orientated validation protocols such as those offered by Metzler and Turner and Martinek have been utilised see Jarrett, And although Stoltz and Pill , p.

In order to appreciate the differences between TGfU and Game Sense it is important to recognise the range of practical and theoretical developments that have influenced how TGfU and to a lesser extent Game Sense are now interpreted and used.

Therefore, the differences outlined below are grounded in the different interpretations of each approach presented in literature over the past 30 years. No one definition of either approach has been adopted to enable a more representative and ecological comparison of differences held within the literature. Thus, although CLT is a blanket term now commonly used in physical education literature, teachers and coaches have an obligation to recognise the different theoretical perspectives that underpinned the development of both TGfU and Game Sense to help ascertain which to use, when and why.

This can help teachers and coaches align the design of the learning environment i. In Game Sense the focus of learning is within games as much as possible with no prior identification of skills to be developed.

Thus, the holistic education focus of TGfU when compared to the more performative sport-specific origins of Game Sense implies the need for difference in the structure of learning. With this said, however, it is important to recognise the educative and performance development value of both approaches and the achievement of learning outcomes across a range of teaching and coaching settings for either approach.

Both the Game Sense lesson and session involve a greater emphasis on learners determining the strategic focus of learning with a focus on staying in the game longer. Indeed, dependent upon learning objectives, it may often be the case that the same questions could be asked even when different approaches are used.

The class has previous experience of being taught basketball in their primary schooling. The group has previous experience of being taught basketball in their primary schooling with some playing at the club longer than others. Rules: no dribble, start from top of 3-point arc or side line, teams swap when ball out of bounds or offensive infraction or defensive team gains possession, defensive foul resets play. Rules: start from half way line or side line, no dribble once ball enters 3-point arc.

After observation and reflection on initial game play a focus on decision making surrounding shot selection is decided on by learners in collaboration with the teacher.

Subsequent games would specifically target development of team play to enable better shot selection. Rules: no dribble, start from half-way line, teams swap when ball out of bounds or offensive infraction or defensive team gains possession, defensive foul resets play. Stop play: allows teacher to question specific aspects of team play and stimulate critical reflection and team discussion. Rules: same as initial game plus 30 second time constraint to shoot, offense keeps possession if they score.

Rules: game refereed, 30 second shot clock, teams keep score with double points on offer with every score directly resulting from a player made open by a screen. Offense: What are the best ways to make yourself open to receive the ball within the key?

After observation and reflection on initial game play an aspect of team play is determined by players in collaboration with coach guidance as the focus of subsequent games. Can you demonstrate them in this scenario? With a focus on developing decision making surrounding shot selection agreed upon, subsequent games would specifically target development of team play to enable better shot selection.

Stop play: allows coach to question specific aspects of team play and stimulate critical reflection and team discussion. Also, the authors believe that teachers and coaches have an obligation to recognise the different theoretical perspectives that underpin use of both TGfU and Game Sense as this knowledge can help drive the professional development of teachers and coaches and stimulate further discourse and development relating to pedagogical choice and implementation.

Appreciation of the differences that exist between TGfU and Game Sense can also help prepare teachers and coaches to recognise and challenge when necessary the assumptions that are sometimes associated with each instructional pedagogy e.

Accessing research can be a time consuming pursuit, especially when the predominance of TGfU and Game Sense literature is available only in English language. Discussion within the paper also focused on the importance for teachers and coaches to recognise the different theoretical perspectives that underpin the use of TGfU and Game Sense as this knowledge can help drive the professional development of teachers and coaches and improve fidelity of pedagogies implemented.

Allison, S. A comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to teaching games within physical education. A skills approach versus a games for understanding approach. British Journal of Physical Education, 28 3 , Brooker, R. Implementing a Game Sense approach to teaching Year 8 basketball. European Physical Education Review, 6 , Bunker, D. Bulletin of Physical Education 18 1 , 5—8.

The curriculum model. Thorpe, D. Almond Eds. From theory to practice. Chen, S. Change: Transformations in Education 9 1 , Curry, C. Sydney: The University of Sydney. Davis, B. Working through the regressive myths of constructivist pedagogy. Teaching Education, 14 2 , Deleplace, R. Rugby de movement rugby total. Paris: Ed. De Souza, A. TGfU as a coaching methodology. Griffin Eds. Evans, J. Asian Journal of Exercise and Sports Science 5 1 , 31— Forrest, G.

Teaching Games for Understanding: A model for pre service teachers. Godbout, P.

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Postby Akinom В» 16.09.2019

With respect to TGfU and Game Sense, use of CLT games to encourage onlien broader conceptualisation of the learning that occurs in and through use of the approach and online the complex nature of learning Light, Learn with experts. No one underpin of either approach has been adopted to enable a more representative and ecological comparison of differences held within the literature.

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