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Fake news game confers psychological resistance against online misinformation

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Online games false stories

Postby Mazugul В» 06.09.2019

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Most of us are familiar with how a vaccine works — it exposes our bodies to weakened versions of a virus to help us build antibodies against the real thing. Now common practice in GPs around the world, vaccination has all but extinguished some of the worst diseases of the last century, including measles and polio. Researchers like Sander van der Linden are working on a type of vaccination that could combat a very 21st-Century scourge: fake news.

This could work because misinformation behaves like a virus. To make things worse, a fake story is tenaciously persistent. Misinformation spreads like a virus, spreading across social media faster and farther than factual stories Credit: Getty Images.

So what can you do? Like Han Solo, you shoot first. Instead of waiting for false information to spread and then laboriously fact-checking and debunking it, researchers go for a pre-emptive strike that has the potential to shield your brain. Decades of research suggests that this approach works. Psychologists first proposed inoculation in the s, driven by fears of propaganda and brainwashing during the Cold War.

But a 21st Century version targets our modern misinformation landscape, one more preoccupied with political divisions and culture wars. Take climate change. The confusion reflects sophisticated campaigns aimed at sowing doubt among the public. The difficulty is that once doubt settles, it is hard to dislodge it. Van der Linden and his colleagues wondered what would happen if they reached people before the nay-sayers did. They dug up a real-life disinformation campaign: the so-called Oregon Petition , which in falsely claimed that over 31, American scientists rejected the position that humans caused climate change.

Credit: Getty Images. The team prepared three documents. Finally, they surveyed 2, people. First, they asked them how big the scientific consensus on climate change is — without looking at either document. The results were intriguing. But they then changed their estimates based on what they read.

One study found that when people were given a factual brief, followed by a fake one, the misinformation completely neutralised the correct data Credit: Getty Images. Strikingly, this was true even after receiving the Oregon Petition. In a separate piece of research, another team lead by John Cook asked a similar question and arrived at the same result: inoculation could give us the upper hand against misinformation. In other words, uncle Gavin may think twice before sharing that latest post about Brexit, Trump or whether the Earth is flat.

Humans usually rely on mental shortcuts to think; the world is full of information and our brain has limited time and capacity to process it. If you see a wrinkled, grey-haired man and someone tells you he is a senior citizen, your brain accepts that and carries on. People working with misinformation know this and use it to their advantage.

For instance, the drafters of the Oregon Petition falsely claimed 31, scientists supported their claim because we tend to trust experts. Before believing a piece of new information, most people scrutinise it in at least five ways, they found.

We usually want to know if other people believe it, if there is evidence supporting this new claim, if it fits with our previous knowledge on the matter hence the grey-haired man, who might fit your idea of a senior citizen , if the internal argument makes sense and whether the source is credible enough.

But at times we rely too much on shortcuts to answer these five questions. Our evaluation is not as thorough. Before believing a piece of new information, people scrutinise it — but sometimes rely on shortcuts to do so Credit: Getty Images. It is immensely helpful for daily life, but vulnerable to deceit. In our fast-paced information ecosystem, our brain jumps from one Facebook post to the next, relying on rules-of-thumb to assess headlines and comments and without giving much thought to each claim.

This is fertile ground for fake news. To appreciate this, it might helpful to understand how a vaccine the actual medical procedure, not the misinformation metaphor works. This interloper startles our immune system into action and it starts building defences, or antibodies.

When we come across the real disease, our body recognises it from the mugshot and is ready to strike back. When his team tipped off the participants that others might try to deceive them, they did not take the Oregon Petition at face value.

They overruled their System 1 thinking and nudged into replacing it with its cousin — the slower but more powerful thinking mode psychologists call System 2. That could explain the higher estimate in the later groups. There is one great weakness of this approach: it takes a lot of time and effort to go case by case, inoculating people. Let us stretch the vaccine metaphor a bit more. Having a shot against rubella, for instance, will not keep you from getting measles or hepatitis, as it will only create antibodies against the rubella virus.

Similarly, if you receive the counterarguments to climate denial, you might still be vulnerable to fake news on other topics. We usually think we know better. That is why pedagogy experts usually advise educators to provide students with an active role in learning. The game focussed on fake news strategies, rather than topics.

Once the offline fake news game proved effective on a test with Dutch high school students, they scaled it up to an online version called Bad News with the help of the collective DROG. Navigating the online game takes less than 15 minutes — but it is a surreal experience.

You launch a fake news site, become its editor-in-chief, purchase an army of Twitter bots and direct your followers against a well-meaning fact checker. By the time I surpassed 7, followers, I felt slightly uneasy at how addictive it was. Throughout the game, you learn six different techniques used by fake news tycoons: impersonation, emotional exploitation, polarisation, conspiracy, discredit and trolling.

The idea is that the next time someone tries to use the tactics against me on social media, I should recognise them and be able to call them out.

Or, at least, an alarm will go off somewhere in my brain and the automatic and easy System 1 process will take the back seat as my mind subs in System 2 for a closer scrutiny. One can only hope. A fake news game teaches players six techniques used, including impersonation, emotional exploitation, polarisation, conspiracy, discredit and trolling Credit: Getty Images.

It seems a bit counterintuitive to fight fake news by teaching people how to become a misinformation mogul, but Roozenbeek trusts the experiment. He is also amused, if only slightly, at my discomfort. The pair drafted an academic paper with the results of 20, players who agreed to share their data for a study.

Although unpublished, they say the results are encouraging. A shorter version of the game is on display at an exhibition at the London Design Museum in which people can play the part of an information agitator in post-Brexit Britain. In their fondness of the inoculation metaphor, the Cambridge team members speak hopefully of the online game, now to be translated to over 12 languages.

Ultimately, it will also have to pass the test of time: researchers do not know how long the benefits of the inoculation would last, if the inoculation works at all. As a virus, disinformation moves in a rapidly changing environment and adapts quickly to new conditions. For decades, medicine has provided us with an easy way to prevent diseases: vaccines. But could vaccines have applications beyond medicine?

Hot topic Take climate change. Once doubt settles, it is hard to dislodge it. Enter inoculation. They are flipping the approach, doing a pre-emptive strike and giving people a heads-up — Eryn Newman. Why it works Humans usually rely on mental shortcuts to think; the world is full of information and our brain has limited time and capacity to process it.

When information feels easy to process, people tend to nod along — Newman. When the research team tipped off the participants that others might try to deceive them, they did not take the misinformation at face value.

Game on There is one great weakness of this approach: it takes a lot of time and effort to go case by case, inoculating people.

So the Cambridge researchers went back to the lab until they came up with a new idea. Share using Email. Open share tools. Like us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter.

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Global Environmental Change In some countries, the rapid spread of online misinformation is posing an additional, physical danger, sometimes leading to online and even death. Kuss, part of stories International Gaming Research Unit at Nottingham Trent University, and her games published a games online heaven full of 27 false investigating the neurobiological correlates of compulsive gaming. Most of them had forgotten what it was like to have a meaningful conversation with another person.

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