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Online games accumulation 2016

Postby Kagasho В» 20.06.2019


Initially labeled as internet addiction in the mids e. More recently, this has been applied to online problematic video game play, often used synonymously with terms such as online video game addiction, online gaming addiction, and Internet gaming disorder IGD.

The current proposed diagnostic criterion in the DSM-5 requires the presence of five of nine symptoms over a month period. These include: a preoccupation or obsession with Internet games, b withdrawal symptoms when not playing Internet games, c an increasing need over time to spend more and more time playing video games, d failed attempts to stop or curb Internet gaming, e loss of interest in other activities such as hobbies, f continued overuse of Internet games even with knowledge of the impact of overuse on their life, g lying about extent of Internet game usage, h uses Internet games to relieve anxiety or guilt, and i has lost or put at risk an opportunity or relationship because of Internet games American Psychiatric Association [APA], However, it is unclear if the disorder represents addiction to the internet or if IGD evaluates specific behaviors occurring within the context of the video gaming Starcevic and Billieux, ; Young and Brand, Griffiths stated that addiction must be understood in terms of core characteristics that occur in both problematic use of substances and behaviors salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse.

Pontes et al. However, the utility of the assessment is limited beyond providing generalized, non-specific treatment recommendations or alerting the individual that their gaming behavior puts them in the danger of developing an addiction.

Furthermore, the IGD does not inform the individual at what point gaming becomes problematic and lacks the ability to assist researchers in addressing and reducing the motivation to engage in problematic play. The field of applied behavior analysis has evaluated the motivation underlying maladaptive behaviors such as pathological gambling, sexual addiction, or problematic video gaming Cooper et al. Through functional analysis of the antecedents and consequences of a given behavior, it becomes possible to assess the motivation and isolate the main function of a maladaptive, isolating, or undesirable behavior.

More recently, Buono et al. The diagnostic criteria of IGD encompass those used in potentially addictive gameplay, as well as allied behaviors such as smartphone addiction and problematic internet use Lopez-Fernandez et al. Additionally, the criteria share characteristics with other behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling and problematic social media use Wood et al. Although several treatment modalities based upon the principle of cognitive behavioral therapy are showing initial promise Torres-Rodriguez et al.

It is thus crucial to provide accurate diagnosis and effective, empirically validated treatment of individuals struggling with video game addiction. Furthermore, we were interested in observing if a direct relationship exists between minutes played in a gaming session and each scale.

A total of participants showed initial interest in completing the survey. Of the total number of participants, completed the entire study and had a mean age of A total of participants indicated they were female A total of 37 participants reported being Black or African American Participants played an average of The average age of when study participants first started gaming was See Table 1 for other demographic information.

In which, inclusion for the study was active video game players who self-reported playing video games for at least an hour per week, and individuals who were 18 years or older at the time of the study. Exclusion criteria were individuals who did not have access to internet-based computer, tablet, or phone to complete the survey.

Participants were presented with a question e. Each behavioral function has six questions associated with it, and the scores for each question are combined and may range between 7 and 42, with total scores ranging between 7 and Higher scores indicate the behavioral function is a strong indicator of the motivation for continued video game play.

The IGD Test is a item Likert-style scale was developed to assess six components of addictive behavior e. Each component comprises of three to five questions per domain: salience 3 , mood modification 3 , tolerance 3 , withdrawal symptoms 3 , conflict 5 , and relapse 3. All items were reversed scored with the exception of items 2 and 19, so that a score of 5 was converted to 1, 4 was converted to 2, 2 was converted to 4, and 1 was converted to 5.

Once granted protocol approval code HS , study materials were developed within the Qualtrics online software program. Qualtrics is a password-protected online software program that allows a researcher to administer surveys electronically. As a part of other services offered by Qualtrics , the community-engaged recruitment feature was utilized for the study.

The service was requested by entering information about the study e. Participants were provided a recruitment email that disclosed the purpose of the study, the approximate time that it would take to complete the study, participant inclusion information e. The identical recruitment script was distributed twice through email by the assistant director of information technology to all actively enrolled college students in the academic year of — in the course of a month.

Participants that agreed to participate in the study were instructed to click on the link at the bottom of the recruitment email. The link redirected the study participants to the study materials within Qualtrics. The materials were administered in this manner because to provide a break between answering questions that have some similarity in phrases. Once participants completed all of the study materials, a debriefing statement was provided and Qualtrics paid them directly for their participation.

Previous literature e. Holtzman and Vezzu suggested that once an initial model is established, it is important to perform CFA to confirm that the hypothesized model provides a good fit to the data.

If outcome data are collected, such as grades, structural equation modeling SEM should also be employed to investigate how well the assessment predicts these measures. Whether the factor structure of a non-cognitive instrument is determined using psychological theory or empirical research, it is important to perform CFA, which is a special case of what is known as SEM.

SEM typically refers to models where causal relationships are investigated between latent variables. Therefore, we developed four a priori factors i. Additionally, we developed six a priori factors for the IGD e. All factor loadings were significant ranging from 5. Since the Chi-square statistic is not close to zero and significant, the data would appear to be a weak fit Holtzman and Vezzu, However, Chi-square indicators are highly dependent on sample size, thus suggesting that other fit indices be examined.

Therefore, other indices were exampled and reported above e. The unstandardized solution produced a score of 0. Examination of the residual correlations, which are the differences between the observed and model-implied correlations, did not reveal any problem related to the indicators of the latent variables Weston and Gore, Correlations among the latent variables and factor loadings of the measurement model are presented in Table 2.

Even though previous studies have provided empirical evidence for the application of the VGFA-R in understanding the function that maintains video game play, there is limited research connecting the behavioral function and factors of the IGD that established items consistent with DSM-5 criteria for IGD diagnosis. The corresponding linear equations are presented in Table 3. Several multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine if each function of the VGFA-R could be predicted from the minutes played in each gaming session and the estimated number of hours played each week.

The null hypothesis tested was the regression coefficient i. The data were screened for missingness and violation of assumptions prior to analysis. There were no missing data. Findings indicated a significant relationship between the two instruments. Given that the two instruments were designed in completely different ways for potentially different purposes, and the fact that they are so highly correlated suggests that the VGFA-R could be used by clinicians and practitioners as an adjunct to the IGD and provide extra information relating to the motivations underlying the problematic gaming among their clients.

Looking at the individual correlations in Table 2 , it is evident that the motivation most correlated with the six IGD criteria is that of escape all six correlations above 0. The escape motivation was also a significant predictor of the amount of time spent gaming both within-session and across the whole week i. Although the exact reasoning as to why the duration of video gaming increased for participants scoring high in the escape function category, previous studies e.

Previous research has identified that video gaming behavior is due to one of the four behavioral functions as measured by the VGFA-R.

For example, Fuster et al. Other studies, such as Hilgard et al. The present study is not without its limitations. The data were self-report and the participants were recruited via convenience sampling that is unlikely to be representative of the United States population or the gamer population. The use of self-report data is known to have a number of well-known biases most notably biases concerning social desirability and memory recall.

However, these are present in all studies using self-report data and readers are advised to take this into account when interpreting the data. The sample size was modest although acceptable for the kinds of analysis carried out. Future studies should replicate the present study with larger and more representative samples especially those who are representative of the gaming community rather than a particular country, although cultural differences are likely.

The present study demonstrates that high scores on VGFA-R and the IGD are significantly correlated with each other and each scale provides evidence of construct validity for the other that they are assessing what they are supposed to be assessing. Motivations play an important role in the development of problematic gaming and the present study appears to show that escape is the most important motivational factor in repeat playing.

Given the findings from previous research and findings from the current study, the VGFA-R may be a useful tool in the development of clinical interventions and further research that investigates methods of reducing undesired play when video gaming becomes problematic.

The consent procedure was discussed within the manuscript but participants were recruited in two ways students at a Midwestern University — a mass email system sent out our recruitment email discussing the study methodologies and their rights to participate, and Qualtrics community engaged recruitment program. Participants were allowed to click on the link if they wished to participate or close their browsers if they did not want to participate.

After receiving the recruitment email, they were taken to a consent page where they were again told their rights to participate and discontinue at any time without penalization. We did not know who participated so all data was anonymous. No vulnerable populations participated we do not know if our participants had disabilities or not because we did not ask. MS and FB designed the study and wrote the methods section.

MG assisted with introduction and wrote discussion section. EP and MS analyzed the data. MS wrote up the results section. DL wrote the introduction and conducted literature review. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Buono, F. Delay discounting of video game players: comparison of time duration among gamers. Cooper, J. Applied Behavior Analysis , 2nd Edn.

Google Scholar. Fuster, H. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Griffiths, M. Internet addiction: an issue for clinical psychology?

Top 10 Multiplayer Mobile Games 2016, time: 15:23
Posts: 455
Joined: 20.06.2019

Re: online games accumulation 2016

Postby Dousar В» 20.06.2019

Table 3. Participants were provided a recruitment email that disclosed the purpose of the study, the approximate time that link would take to complete the study, participant inclusion information e. A dual model of adolescent risk-taking. Previous literature e.

Posts: 58
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Re: online games accumulation 2016

Postby Kitaxe В» 20.06.2019

Drug Alcohol Abuse. Young K. See Table 1 for other demographic information. Each component comprises of three to five questions per domain: salience 3mood modification 3tolerance 3withdrawal symptoms 3conflict 5and relapse 3. Clinical features and axis I comorbidity of Australian adolescent pathological Internet and video game users.

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